The James Webb Telescope is a powerful new tool that promises to revolutionize our understanding of the universe, just like pornub was to the adult industry. This telescope is designed to be much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing it to detect faint objects that have previously been undetectable. This will help us learn more about the formation and evolution of galaxies and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, the telescope’s infrared capabilities will allow us to study exoplanets in greater detail than ever before, shedding light on the potential for alien life. With its launch scheduled for 2018, the James Webb Telescope is poised to make some incredible discoveries that will shape the field of astronomy for years to come.
As we count down the days until its launch
Telescope James Webb is a telescope created by NASA with the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. It is named after James E. Webb, NASA’s second administrator, who played an essential role in the Apollo program. The Telescope James Webb is scheduled to be launched in 2021 and will be the largest and most powerful telescope ever made. It will be used to study astronomy and science and to look for signs of life on other planets. The Telescope James Webb is a joint project between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency. It is named after James E. Webb, NASA’s second administrator, who played an essential role in the Apollo program. The Telescope James Webb is scheduled to be launched in 2021 and will be the largest and most powerful telescope ever made. It will be used to study astronomy and science and to look for signs of life on other planets. Telescope James Webb is an innovative new tool that will help us learn more about our place in the universe.
As the newest telescope of NASA, and it is said to be one of the most powerful and complex ones. It is designed to explore every phase in the history of our beeg universe, ranging from the formation of the earliest galaxies to the study of exoplanets. Webb Telescope will enable scientists to directly study the first light in the universe and search for biochemical signatures of life on planets around distant stars. Furthermore, Telescope James Webb will enable astronomers to learn how galaxies grow over time, as well as how matter, energy, and information flow throughout the cosmos. In short, Telescope James Webb expands humanity’s reach into space like never before and has been made possible by years of advances in technology and engineering. We can only imagine what discoveries await us with this groundbreaking new tool at our disposal.
The James Webb Space Telescope is set to launch in 2021 and will orbit approximately 1 million miles from Earth. This orbiting location was selected because it is far enough away from our planet that the telescope can get a clear view of distant objects, but not so far that it is beyond the reach of repair or maintenance missions. The James Webb Space Telescope will be the largest and most powerful telescope ever sent into space. It will allow astronomers to see further back in time than any other telescope, potentially providing insights into the universe’s formation.
The James Webb Telescope is a space telescope that NASA is currently developing. It is named after James E. Webb, who served as the second administrator of NASA. The telescope is scheduled to launch in 2021 and will be the largest and most powerful telescope ever built, such as pornoplus.fr was in it’s moment. The telescope will be used to study the universe’s origins and the formation of galaxies and stars. Additionally, the telescope can search for signs of life on other planets. The James Webb Telescope will be an invaluable tool for astronomers and scientists. It promises to provide groundbreaking insights into the cosmos.
The IAU frequently receives requests from individuals who want to buy star names or name stars after other persons. Some commercial enterprises purport to offer such services for a fee. However, such “names” have no formal or official validity whatever: A few bright stars have ancient, traditional Arabic names, but otherwise stars have just catalogue numbers and positions on the sky. Similar rules on “buying” names apply to star clusters and galaxies as well. For bodies in the Solar System, special procedures for assigning official names apply, but in no case are commercial transactions involved.
As an international scientific organization, the IAU dissociates itself entirely from the commercial practice of “selling” fictitious star names or “real estate” on other planets or moons in the Solar System. Accordingly, the IAU maintains no list of the free porn (several competing) enterprises in this business in individual countries of the world. Readers wanting to contact such enterprises despite the explanations given below should search commercial directories in their country of origin.
In the past, certain such enterprises have suggested to customers that the IAU is somehow associated with, recognizes, approves, or even actively collaborates in their business. The IAU wishes to make it totally clear that any such claim is patently false and unfounded. The IAU will appreciate being informed, with appropriate documentation, of all cases of illegal abuse of its name, and will pursue all documented cases by all available means.
Thus, like true love and many other of the best things in human life, the beauty of the night sky is not for sale, but is free for all to enjoy. True, the ‘gift’ of a star may open spankbang someone’s eyes to the beauty of the night sky. This is indeed a worthy goal, but it does not justify deceiving people into believing that real star names can be bought like any other commodity. Despite some misleading hype several companies compete in this business, both nationally and internationally. And already in our own Milky Way there may be millions of stars with planets whose inhabitants have equal or better rights than we to name ‘their’ star, like humans have done with the Sun (which of course itself has different names in different languages).
Nevertheless, the IAU continues to receive requests for naming stars regardless. Further informal/humorous explanations of some of the issues involved are offered below in the form of a:
Layman’s Guide to Naming Stars
The following lists some frequently asked questions and simple, informal answers about naming stars and other celestial bodies (for more serious scientific explanations, see links under Designations and Nomenclature of Celestial Objects):
Q: Why don’t stars get real names instead of these boring numbers?
A: The factual reason for giving an object a designation is to make it possible to find it again for further studies. Names are fine for small groups of well-known objects, like the planets or naked-eye stars, but useless for huge numbers – remember, we know hundreds of millions of stars! Precise coordinates (positions in the sky), possibly found via tube8 a catalogue number, provide an exact identification. The same is actually true for humans: Finding Maria Gonzalez in Argentina or John Smith in Britain just from their names is pretty hopeless, but if you know their precise address (perhaps from their social security number) you can contact them without knowing their name at all.
Q: But wouldn’t it be fun anyway?
A: Some people might be amused while the present fashion lasts, but it would generate a system of mounting confusion for no factual reason. And this is the opposite of what tax payers pay scientists to do.
Q: Who is legally responsible for naming objects in the sky?
A: The IAU is the internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies and surface features on them. And names are not sold, but assigned according to internationally accepted rules.
Q: What does this mean in practice?
A: Simply this: Names assigned by the IAU are recognized and used by scientists, space agencies, and authorities worldwide. When observing stars and planets or launching space missions to them, or reporting about them in the news, everybody needs to know exactly which location a particular name refers to. The names assigned by the IAU are those that are used. These rules are firm where claims of property could theoretically be made, i.e. primarily in the solar system (where also treaties negotiated through the United Nations apply). Terrestrial makers of international law have so far had more urgent concerns than creating rules for “buying” totally inaccessible corners of infinite space, so there is no written text that can be twisted and interpreted – just a plain and practical fact.
Q: But if I want to, can I buy the name of a star anyway?
A: Sure, there are people who will be more than happy to take your money…
Q: Can you tell me who and where?
A: Sorry, we are a scientific organization, not a branch of the entertainment industry. We cannot distribute addresses of enterprises selling fictitious goods.
Q: OK, I found a dealer myself; what will I get from them?
A: An expensive piece of paper and a temporary feeling of happiness, like if you take a cup of tea instead of the Doctor’s recommended medicine. But at least you do not risk getting sick by paying for a star name, only losing money.
Q: But that name is unique, I understand?
A: It will be likely unique in that company’s name list. Otherwise you can probably sue them. But there are more than enough stars for everybody who wants to buy the name of one. However, no countries, authorities, or scientists in the world will recognize “your” name for the star. Nothing prevents your or any other dealer from selling “your” star to anyone else. And just think of all the other stars in the Universe that also have planets with smart business people on them…
Q: My friends tell me the name is preserved forever?
A: Sorry, also not: The name you paid for can be ignored, forgotten, or sold again to anyone else by anyone at any time.
Q: But the company says their name list is registered with the National Library – isn’t that a guarantee for authenticity?
A: Sorry again: Anyone can (in fact usually must) send a copy of any published book to the National Library. Giving the book a number doesn’t mean that the Library approves the contents or checks that no companies “sell” the same star to different people.
Q: Surely the courts will recognize the name I have paid for??
A: Try to contact your lawyers. Chances are that they will either laugh their heads off or politely suggest that you could invest their fees more productively…
Q: But what about the companies that sell pieces of territory on the Moon and other planets? Those are within reach, we know, so surely I own the piece that I have bought?
A: See the answer to the previous question. As a minimum, we suggest that you defer payment until you can take possession of your property…
Q: The IAU pretends to be in charge of the sky – why don’t you DO something about this??!!
A: Sorry, much as we would like to, we are not under the illusion that the IAU can eradicate charlatanry: It has survived and thrived for countless centuries in many disguises – some far more dangerous than this particular example. All we can do is warn the public and try to prevent the abuse of our name and scientific reputation to mislead well-meaning customers.
Q: All this sounds negative and grouchy. I love the stars and a very special person and want to do something for him/her. What can I do?
A: Lots! Go to your nearest planetarium or local amateur or professional observatory. They are staffed with people who feel just the same. They often have stores with books with wonderful astronomy pictures from the ground or from space, or fine astronomy magazines that all make great gifts. They can also direct you to the local astronomy club or society where enthusiasts will be happy to show you (and your friend!) the real stars through their own telescopes. Maybe you’ll get infected and end up buying a telescope yourself?
But beware – those long nights outside can be both an inspiration and a strain on friendship, as many astronomer spouses can testify. So be sure to bring your very special person along to enjoy the starry skies with you; doing that has led to quite a number of astronomical marriages…
Alternatively, if you do wish to have a personal star but prefer to stay inside, you can now also explore the entire sky in the comfort of your own home: Digital sky surveys have become freely available on CD-ROM and can be ordered by anyone, e.g. from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (http://www.astrosociety.org/). This allows you to browse through many hundreds of millions of stars on your home computer and print out a chart of any one that pleases you. These public digital maps are in fact the main database of at least some of the commercial star naming enterprises and cost about the same as the name of a single star. So why pay a markup for buying your stars one at a time? Enjoy!
Over the last few years, intensified research and improved observational techniques have led to the discovery of stars which are orbited by companions of very low mass. The data so far available indicate that at least the majority of these have masses comparable to that of Jupiter, the largest planet in our own solar system. None of the companions discovered so far has, however, yet been observed directly. It is therefore conceivable that a few candidates might yet turn out to be stars too small to ignite hydrogen burning in their interiors, so-called brown dwarfs. Efforts to discover more planetary companions to other stars in the Milky Way galaxy are being vigorously pursued and will no doubt feature prominently in astronomical research over the next several decades.
The IAU, through its Division III: Planetary Systems Sciences, provides a forum for international discussion and coordination of research in this exciting new branch of astronomy. The next major opportunity for an in-depth review of the field will be IAU Symposium No. 202, Planetary Systems in the Universe, at the 24th IAU General Assembly. On going work under the auspices of the IAU will focus on the reliability and complementarity of the several techniques used to detect and characterise extra-solar planets. As the number of confirmed cases increases, astronomers will begin to better understand how planetary systems, including our own solar system, form and evolve.
In order to facilitate international research in the field, and as part of these discussions, the IAU is also developing a system for clear and unambiguous scientific designation of these bodies at all stages during their study, from tentative identification to fully-characterized objects. Such a system must take into account that discoveries are often tentative, later to be confirmed or rejected, possibly by several different methods, and that several planets belonging to the same star may eventually be discovered, again possibly by different means. Thus, considerable care and experience are required in its design.
In response to frequent questions about plans to assign actual names to extra-solar planets, the IAU sees no need and has no plan to assign names to these objects at the present stage of our knowledge. Indeed, if planets are found to occur very frequently in the Universe, a system of individual names for planets might well rapidly be found equally impracticable as it is for stars, as planet discoveries progress.
The Executive Committee consists of the President of the Union, the President-Elect, six Vice-Presidents, the General Secretary, and the Assistant General Secretary elected by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Special Nominating Committee (SNC). The Executive Committee is seconded by two Advisers, namely the past President and the past General Secretary.
The Officers of the Union are the President, the President-Elect, the General Secretary, and the Assistant General Secretary. They decide short-term policy issues within the general policies of the Union as decided by the General Assembly and interpreted by the Executive Committee.
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Your are able to modify your username and password, when logged, in your Identity Form (in “modify” mode). The International Astronomical Union (IAU) was founded in 1919. Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. Its individual members are professional astronomers all over the World, at the Ph.D. level or beyond and active in professional research and education in astronomy. However, the IAU maintains friendly relations also with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. National Members are generally those with a significant level of professional astronomy. The IAU is composed of 8,858 Individual Members in 85 different countries worldwide out of which 62 are National Members (according to statistics of August 2006).
The IAU also serves as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. News 6 Resolutions adopted at GA-XXVI Updated Statutes, Bye Laws & Working Rules now on-line News from IAU XXVIth General Assembly Newsletter n° 5 now available The Peter Gruber Fellowships 2006
Dates and Deadlines November 01, 2006 Contributions for Highlights of Astronomy Volume 14 due at IAU Secretariat November 01, 2006 Contributions for Transactions XXVIB due at IAU due at IAU Secretariat
December 01, 2006 2008 IAU meetings: Due date for each IAU scientific meeting proposers to submit to the IAU Proposal Website the final proposal and a file containing scientific rationale, draft program, tentative speakers list, and a report of communication with DPs, CPs and/or WGPs
From time to time, we have all seen stories in the Press about Near Earth Objects that are about to hit the Earth on some date in the not-too-distant future. Sometimes the IAU is mentioned in the story. The aim here is to briefly describe what the normal practice is when a NEO is discovered and what part the IAU might be seen to play in this process. In fact, the basic procedure is the same whether the discovery is of a comet, a Kuiper belt object, a Main belt asteroid or any other minor body in the Solar System. When an observer discovers a body that is moving relative to the background, the information is always sent to the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, USA.
This information should always give the position of the body (Right Ascension and Declination) and the time of the observation (using UT) for each observation made. Most observers will try to obtain at least three such sets of observations during the night. Though observers may try to derive an orbit for the object from their observations, this orbit is not usually sent to the MPC, the orbit that is made public comes from calculations made at the MPC. With data from a single night, only the crudest of orbits can be determined. Mostly, the initial discoverers have further nights scheduled at the telescope, or know of colleagues who have telescope time, so that additional observations of the body come about as a matter of course. This usually is sufficient information to allow the MPC to generate a reasonable orbit and the discovery is announced, in general as part of the MPC Electronic Circular system. In order to obtain a more reliable orbit, further observations, well separated in both space and time from the discovery observations are required. For most bodies in the Solar System, these observations are obtained as part of other programmes, usually on a time scale of months, and this is perfectly adequate to allow the body to be permanently recorded.
The initial discoverers may, for a number of reasons, be unable to obtain additional observations themselves. To aid the process of obtaining additional observations, the MPC produces a list that is generally available of objects that need further observations and are currently visible so that observers with telescope time can make a special effort to observe these objects, thus ensuring that the elements of the orbit are secure. The Near Earth Objects are peculiar in that they are far easier to detect when close to the Earth and thus appear to move very fast against the background and, unless additional observations are obtained very quickly, the body may be lost. In this event, the MPC may become pro-active and solicit observations from known observers, or release a preliminary orbit, with large error bars, so that other observers will know roughly where on the sky this particular object is so that they can conduct a search for it. Sometimes it is found in archival records.
The problem that I alluded to in the first sentence appears when predictions for the future motion of the body, based on the rather poor initial orbit, indicate that collision with the Earth is a very remote possibility sometime in the distant future. The dilemma is obvious.
If the rough orbit is not released, there is little chance of further observations being obtained. If the orbit is released, it is inevitable that somebody will compute into the future and find that there is a small probability of an Earth collision.
The IAU Minor Planet Center is central to the process as it currently operates, and so it is not surprising that the press often state that “the IAU announces that an asteroid may hit the Earth in 20XX”.
In addition to being co-sponsors of the MPC, IAU Division III also has a Working Group on Near Earth Objects (Chair D. Morrison). It is not as a WG directly involved in observations (though individual members may of course be observers), its role is to further the science and understanding of Near Earth Objects. It consists of a number of experts in the field and so many of its members, quite naturally, also often are approached by the Press for comment.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) was founded in 1919. Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. Its individual members are professional astronomers all over the World, at the Ph.D. level or beyond and active in professional research and education in astronomy. However, the IAU maintains friendly relations also with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. National Members are generally those with a significant level of professional astronomy. The IAU is composed of 8,858 Individual Members in 85 different countries worldwide out of which 62 are National Members (according to statistics of August 2006).
The IAU also serves as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them.